I was silently YELLING at my students in my head.
“We’ve been over this a thousand times!”
“They are the simplest of L2 questions. I know they’re novice students, but…C’MON!!! How can they NOT know how to respond to “How are you?” or “What’s your name?” in the target language!!?!
- I’ve modeled the target questions and responses!
- We’ve gone over it again and again in class! …even with puppets!
- I made an “engaging” video to help them remember!
- We’ve played practice games!
- I’ve done everything I know how to do!”
Granted, the students COULD answer the questions during the games/activities IN CLASS. However, as soon as I surprised them with the same L2 questions in the hallway or in the cafeteria they would look at me with a blank stare, pause and say, “huh?”
Why COULDN’T they answer (in an improvised, or real-life, situation) the same questions they were correctly answering during the classroom games/activities?
I think it was because I was asking them to do something I never prepared them to do.
Here’s what I mean:
At the beginning of my teaching career I taught students L2 by speaking L1. I used a lot of different strategies to help them memorize L2 to L1 translations. When I planned my lessons, the question in my head usually went something like this: “What can I do during class today to make sure my students know that, ‘¿Cómo estás?’ means, ‘How are you?'” (Side Note: Don’t get me wrong. I don’t think that this is necessarily a WRONG approach to teach a foreign language. I don’t believe there is one BEST way to teach L2 in every academic setting. For more on this click here.)
So we would practice…and memorize…and repeat…and play practice games…and sing practice songs.
Some things went well. The students could participate. Some students would get good at winning those practice games. But when I asked some of those winning students to answer one of those L2 questions at random outside of class it would always seem like they would think the following thoughts:
“Uh oh. Sr. Howard just asked me a Spanish question that I think I’m supposed to know. He said, ‘¿Cómo estás?’ Ummm…wait…I know that one. What does ‘¿Cómo estás?’ mean again? Oh yeah. It means, ‘how are you?’ Okay wait…I know this. Ummm. So if he’s asking me ‘how are you?’ I need to tell him how I’m feeling. Okay. I’m feeling good. But what is, ‘I’m feeling good,’ in Spanish? Oh yeah…that’s, ‘estoy bien,’ I think. Okay…so he says…’¿Cómo estás?’…and I say, ‘estoy bien.’ I hope this is right.”
Do you see their struggle? Do you see how they couldn’t use L2 naturally because they were trying to make connections between the two languages in their heads?
My classroom activities weren’t fully preparing them to use L2 naturally in a real-life situation.
There was a missing link. They were learning things ABOUT L2. But they weren’t quite able to connect what they were learning to real-life.
During the last few years I’ve made some changes to my approach to teaching a foreign language. The changes have helped me learn what thousands of foreign language educators already know. I’m not well acquainted with the available research on foreign language teaching approaches/methods. So I can’t astutely describe the changes I’ve made. But a phrase popped into my head the other day that sums it up well for me:
Language To Language OR Language To Living
In 2012 I decided to start teaching a foreign language by staying in the target language. Together with my students, I’ve thrown L1 out the window. With no L1, the students don’t spend time making connections between two languages. Now there’s only L2. And the L2 is connected to all the things that happen when we’re together. (See video examples here.)
I’ve observed some things that have surprised me. The one surprising thing that I’ll take the time to point out now is MY STUDENTS CAN DO IT! They can answer those same, simple L2 questions even when we’re outside of the classroom. We’ll run into each other at the local mall…AND THEY CAN ANSWER THEM. I’ll see them at the food store…AND THEY CAN ANSWER THEM. Outside on the playground…THEY CAN ANSWER THEM. Even the youngest students! Even after I haven’t seen them for 2 months during summer break!
The difference is that I don’t use class time to practice Language To Language connections. I use class time to foster Language To Living connections.
I probably would’ve realized these things years ago if I would’ve taken the time to read the available foreign language acquisition research. Instead I’ve had to stumble upon it on my own. But slowly, I’m getting it. I’m getting that…:
- …when I effectively teach a foreign language by speaking the foreign language, the students will have been experiencing in the classroom what they’ll need in order to use L2 naturally outside of the classroom.
- if I DO CHOOSE to teach a foreign language by speaking L1, I’ll need to make sure that I set aside the necessary class time to help them make that next connection. I can’t only spend time helping them make connections between two languages. I have to help them make the connection between the L2 they’ve learned and the real life situations they’ll have to use it in.
Share your target language teaching experiences!
Have the contents of this blog ever impacted your teaching or philosophy of teaching?Leave comments below or add to the conversation on twitter by using #TL90plus (for “staying in the target language” comments) and/or #langchat (for general language teaching comments).