Here’s a great question about L2 use in the foreign language classroom from a middle school German teacher:
Hello Señor Howard,
I’ve been teaching middle school German for 10 years, but I don’t like the amount of L1 I have been using. My goal is to use 90%+ TL in my classroom. In the past I have used many activities the first week in English to help get to know everyone and help them become acclimated to my classroom. What type of activities do you do the first week in L2? When do you feel it’s okay to use L1? Thanks for your help! So far I love the resources and advice on your page!
Thanks for writing! Best wishes on the upcoming school year and I hope the thoughts I’ve included below answer your questions. (Your statements/questions are in bold with my response underneath each one.)
“I don’t like the amount of L1 I’ve been using.”
This may not be the way you are feeling (but it’s still worth mentioning)…Be careful NOT to assume that you’re doing something wrong if you use a lot of L1. Some teachers feel that using L1 makes them NOT AS GOOD as other foreign language teachers. It’s not necessarily true. I don’t think that staying in the target language is the best way to teach a foreign language in every academic situation. I wrote a couple of blog posts on debunking these types of teaching in the target language MYTHS. To read more click here (for myths 1-5) and here (for myths 6-10).
“In the past I have used many activities the first week in English to help get to know everyone and help them become acclimated to my classroom.”
I really like your idea of helping everyone get acclimated/comfortable. Intimidation and anxiety are big foreign language learning stumbling blocks. If a teacher can kick those two things out of the classroom, at the beginning of the year, she’ll be doing herself a huge favor. What you’re suggesting of using L1 at the beginning of the year to introduce students to routines, your teaching style, expectations, etc…is one great way to do this. Here are some more:
- Build a Reluctant Student’s Confidence – Interpretive Mode
- How To Avoid “Freaking Out” Novice L2 Learners When Staying In The Target Language
- “My Students Don’t Feel Comfortable When I Spend Long Amounts Of Time Teaching In The Target Language.“
- How To Increase Student Motivation
What type of activities do you do the first week in L2?
Here’s a post I wrote about this topic entitled, The First Week Of Trying To Stay In The Target Language With Your Students. In it, I give specific examples of how you can do the following:
- Give a motivational speech.
- Implement a motivational structure.
- Catch students off guard.
- Debrief with students about what it’s like to hear only L2.
- Tell them about “*pairing.“
- Start the week with some fun, easy, “staying in the TL” lessons (examples included)
When do you feel it’s okay to use L1?
There are generally 3 occasions when I use L1 in my foreign language classroom. Click here for the full post on this.
My guess is that teachers feel like they have to use L1 in order to help students find meaning in incomprehensible L2. I DO think that it’s absolutely necessary for students to find meaning in incomprehensible L2. Without it, I don’t think L2 acquisition progress can be made. The problem is (in my opinion) that many teachers don’t realize the amount of ways meaning can be found apart from using L1. I’ve tried to list the various ways over the last several months (click on each item for more detailed info and examples):
- *Representational Input
- *Gesticulated Input
- *Constructed Situational Input
- *Incidental Situational Input
- Different types of linguistic input (L1 and L2)
- *Inflectional Input
*Disclaimer: These terms are my own and I’m using them for the purpose of reflecting on my own foreign language teaching practice. The reader should not assume that this is a term found in formal, academic writing.
Your voice is valuable! Share your target language teaching experiences!