90% target language in upper levels is realistic, but what about levels 1 & 2? How do you keep them from freaking out?
There were some wonderful answers offered by Virginia Rinaldi, Cecile Laine, Laura Sexton and Kristi Placido (As of 12:57pm ET on 12/8/2014). In more words, or less, they suggested the following: (live links below for further reading on each topic from Tuesday’s Tips…)
- Don’t worry about novice learners having to produce L2 90% of the time. Focus on the teacher using the target language at least 90% of the time.
- If you make sure the input is comprehensible, it will help reduce student anxiety.
- TPRS is an instructional strategy that can keep anxiety levels low.
- Use lots of repetition and routine.
- Use lots of cognates.
- Focus on repeating high frequency vocabulary words.
- Lead students in accomplishing simple purposeful tasks.
- Limit the amount of L2 vocabulary you use as a teacher. Make that vocabulary comprehensible and split it into manageable chunks.
- Reading activities.
I’ll add my thoughts here:
1- Picture your novice/intermediate-low students as infants and toddlers learning their first language. (Easier to do if you are a parent) Doing this will help you avoid thinking,
“Ahhh! ACTFL says students and teachers should stay in the target language at least 90% of the time!! How am I supposed to do that with novice learners!?!”
You wouldn’t expect your 10-month-old to produce very much L1. Older infants might only be able to attempt single words or parts of words. To communicate their thoughts and feelings, they would rely on signs, body language and noises. Verbal communication is led/directed/initiated by the adult. The dynamic should be the same in the L2 classroom. Your novice learners shouldn’t be expected to carry on conversations in the target language, just like you wouldn’t expect your 1-year-old to carry the conversation around the dinner table. Novice language learners need to be observers. They need to hear L1 in context. They need to hear L1 in comprehensible forms. When language is comprehensible, and when there’s repeated opportunities to hear the CI in a meaningful context, language will be naturally acquired.
This doesn’t mean that novice learners don’t need to be immersed in L2. They do!
- introducing L2 vocabulary while staying in the target language.
- managing student behavior and staying in the target language.
- making the INTERPERSONAL mode as easy as possible for novice learners.
- how to structure interpretive mode activities while staying in the target language.
3- Not only can novice students SURVIVE in an L2 immersion environment – THEY CAN THRIVE. When you teach a foreign language by speaking L1, you tend be a “skills instructor” and a “memorization facilitator”. It’s not a very natural approach and it doesn’t yield very organic results. Consider an analogy of a tree; where the tree is your student and his ability to produce L2 is like a tree’s ability to display fruit. Being a skills instructor is like being a farmer who’s trying to hang individual pieces of fruit on the branches of a tree. It’s awkward. It’s not natural. It looks a bit funny to see fruit pieces duct-taped or stapled to the branches of a tree. The fruit won’t stay up there for very long before it falls off. Using L1 to teach L2 is a strategy that doesn’t focus on a learner’s “language root system.”
According to this analogy, a novice speaker might have 10 pieces of L2-fruit that you’ve helped them hang up. An intermediate speaker might have 50 pieces of L2-fruit that you’ve helped them hang. If you have a highly motivated “skills memorizer” in your class, you might be able to help them hang one or two hundred pieces of L2-fruit on their tree.
When you stay in the target language and ensure that input is comprehensible, you are focusing on the student’s root system. You are no longer focused on producing fruit by duct taping it up on the foreign language proficiency tree. You are feeding the tree. You are nourishing the tree. The tree might not produce L2 fruit right away. But it will in time; and the fruit it produces will emerge on it’s own. And it will continue to produce fruit on its own even when there’s no instructor their to duct tape it on. Watching your students produce L2 fruit on their own is so exciting. (See more on this analogy/topic by clicking here.)
4- Don’t talk over their heads. In other words: DON’T USE TOO MUCH L2 VOCABULARY. Try to only say the words they know. And say those words over and over and over again. Language learners (including infants learning L1) need to hear new words and phrases over and over before they acquire and produce those language terms on their own.
You might ask, Sr. Howard…“what the -ell am I supposed to do with my novice students for 200 minutes or more a week if 1- I’m supposed to stay in the target language? and 2- If I’m only supposed to say a handful of words!?!” For my answer, check out the links under point #2 of this blog or some of the following links:
- effective L2 immersion routines for older students or for younger students
- video examples of Sr. Howard teaching in the target language to novice learners
- thoughts behind Sr. Howard’s 90+% TL instruction strategies (part 1, part 2, part 3)
- detailed lesson plans for staying in the target language
Keep the conversation going! How do you help your novice students not “freak out” when you speak in the target language? Leave comments below.
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